AnticlineArching rock fold that is closed at the top and open at bottom. Oldest formation occurs in the center of an anticline.
BasementComplex of igneous and metamorphic rock that underlies the sedimentary rocks of a region.
BioticPertaining to plants and animals.
BorealRelating to the northern biotic area characterized by the dominance of coniferous forests.
Carbonate rockCollective term including limestone and dolomite.
ConiferousDescribing the cone-bearing trees of the pine family; usually evergreen.
Continental driftTheory that the continental land masses drift across the earth as the earth's plates move and interact in a process called plate tectonics.
DeciduousPlants that shed their leaves seasonally and are leafless for part of the year.
EndemicHaving originated in and being restricted to one particular environment.
EscarpmentCliff or steep rock face formed by faulting that separates two comparatively level land surfaces.
ExtinctNo longer existing.
ExtirpatedExtinct in a particular area.
FeldsparComplex of silicates that make up bulk of the earth's crust.
FoldWarped rock including synclines and anticlines.
GneissMetamorphic granitelike rock showing layers.
GraniteIgneous rock composed predominantly of visible grains of feldspar and quartz. Used in building.
IgneousRock formed by cooled and hardened magma within the crust or lava on the surface.
KarstArea of land lying over limestone and characterized by sinkholes, caves, and sinking streams.
LavaMagma which reaches the surface of the earth.
MagmaMolten rock within the earth's crust.
MetamorphicRock which has been changed into present state after being subjected to heat and pressure from the crust, or chemical alteration.
MonadnockLand that contains more erosion-resistant rock than surrounding area and therefore is higher.
OrogenyA geologic process which results in the formation of mountain belts.
Overthrust beltAn area where older rock has been thrust over younger rock.
RapidsFast-moving water that flows around rocks and boulders in rivers; classified from I to VI according to degree of difficulty navigating.
SchistFlaky, metamorphic rock containing parallel layers of minerals such as mica.
SedimentaryRocks formed by the accumulation of sediments (sandstone, shale) or the remains of products of animals or plants (limestone, coal).
ShaleSedimentary rock composed of clay, mud, and silt grains which easily splits into layers.
SynclineA rock fold shaped like a U that is closed at the bottom and open at the top. The youngest rock is at the center of a syncline.
TalusRock debris and boulders that accumulate at the base of a cliff.
WatershedThe area drained by a river and all its tributaries.