The tiny size and quick movements of various wood warblers (Parulidae) make them difficult to tell apart, even with binoculars. However, similar species can often be ruled out by observing behavior, examining habitat, and listening for the distinctive songs. The worm-eating warbler (Helmitheros vermivorus), for example, prefers dry, wooded hillsides and has a buzzy, insectlike song. But the gaily colored hooded warbler (Wilsonia citrina) is more often found in the luxuriant undergrowth of moist woods. It has a clear, ringing, melodious voice. The worm-eating warbler pokes about in the leaf litter for insect larvae while the hooded warbler darts about the understory, often catching insects on the fly.
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